Wave approach to optical waveguides. Hamiltonian formulation of Maxwell equations and fundamental properties of guided modes. Transfer matrix method: planar waveguides and circular optical fibers. Guided modes, leaky modes, surface waves. Modal excitation and coupling efficiency. Optical fiber communications. Metamaterial waveguides and anti-resonant waveguides. Perturbation Theory and Coupled Mode Theory. Waveguide components: couplers, Bragg gratings, tapered fibers. Optical systems. Numerical modeling of the behavior of guided optical devices using the finite element method.